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All Those Early Croys

 

jacob croy brother in law inventory

A blast from the past in which a Jacob Croy is a executor of the estate.

A FRIENDLY DISCLAIMER: This post is for those with an interest in the Croy surname only…real “in the weeds” research. It happens sometimes (smile).

 

A follower asked for some help with a Croy family line centered in Montgomery, Virginia and, boy, was that a loaded request. He had traced (or was considering) an early Lawrence Croy as one of his ancestors. I’ve been searching early records for a link to my Jacob Croy, so have delved deep into early Croy surnames. It is a potpourri, promoting more questions than answers.

So far, it seems, the early Croys settled in three distinct locals: Pennsylvania, Vermont/NY, and Virginia, as well as a random record or two.There is little definite early verification of the familial relationship of all those recorded Croys. Still, in the interest of helping others, and maybe get some feedback to further my own research, I thought I’d list what I know so far, along with a brief explanation of where to find the records. (Unless noted the records can be located on Ancestry.com)

Reading the information below generates questions, none likely answerable:

  1. Is the Lorenz Croy who arrives in PA in 1753, the same one who appears in Rensselaer, NY in 1785, and, subsequently, Highgate, VT in 1799.
  2. Are the Bedford, PA or Dauphin County, PA Croys related in any way to Lawrence? He may have come to PA with young children?? Or had them soon after, and they headed out on their own?
  3. Is the Jacob of VT who disappears from Highgate records after 1804, the same Jacob who appears in Montgomery (Giles) County, VA in 1810?
  4. Why was Jacob such a popular chosen name? Three Jacobs exist at the same time in the late 1700’s: one in Bedford County, PA; one in Dauphin County, PA; one in Highgate, VT.

Here we go! Ordered by date:

Pennsylvania

1753-First recorded Croy: Lorenz Friedrich Croy arrives in Philadelphia, PA and signs the oath of allegiance

1765-Hannis Croy and wife Marya baptize daughter Annate at the Dutch Reformed Church in Milston, Somerset, New Jersey on Oct. 21st

1768-Michael Croy and Anna Maria, his wife sponsor a baptism at David’s/Sherman’s Lutheran Church in York County, PA

1776 to1790-Appearance on tax roll for Cumberland Valley/Londonderry Township, Bedford County, PA: Richard (beginning 1776), Jacob (beginning 1778), and Mathias (beginning 1787; Micael on 1790 Federal census) There is plenty regarding this line on my blog so I will not repeat it here.

1780-A Jacob Croy is named executor of the will of Adam Rambarger of Anville Township, Dauphin County, PA (brother-in-law; his sister Esther, Adam’s wife; Adam’s children listed George, Jacob, and daughters unnamed. (This is a wonderful insight into the times, particularly the inventory of possessions.)

1780-A Jacob Croy (same as above?) appears on the Lebanon Borough Taxable Returns as a freeman. From  History of the counties of Dauphin and Lebanon: Everts & Peck, 1883. (Note: Annville and Lebanon are right next door.)

Vermont/NY

1781- John G. Croy appears on payroll signed in Bennington, VT for August under Captain Odell in Colonel John Abbet’s Regiment

1785-Lowrence Croy and John G. Croy appear on roster of Henry K. Van Rensselaer’s Regiment (Albany County), Militia. (John G., we will discover, is Lawrence’s son.)

1790-Christian Cray is listed on 1790 Federal census for Rensselaerwick, Albany, New York. Pension records indicate he served with Rensselaer’s Regiment as well. Fold3 has his application for a pension, which indicated he came from Germany. (Christian, we will discover, is Lawrence’s son.)

1790-John Croy appears on 1790 Federal census for Fredrick, Maryland. (Random or John of Lawrence venturing, briefly out.???)

1799- Lawrence Croy files a will on May 3rdin Highgate, Franklin, Vermont. In the will he lists Rachel as his wife and Christian and Jacob as his sons…a later will, named below gives more information. At this time, he willed Jacob 100 acres and Christian 2 pence. The town of Highgate was not really viable until 1791 and the records start at 1794, so it makes sense that this is the Rensseler County, NY family from above. As you will see, John G. and Christian stayed in NY and Jacob, John (yes, there were two Johns) moved to VT with their father. This comes from the Vermont Town Records for Highgate found at Familysearch.org (search Franklin County, then Highgate image #36). I love these records! Only problem—they are not indexed. You have to search them a page at a time. Lucky for you, I am giving you the image numbers. 

1800-Jacob Croy (Lawrence’s son) appears as a selectman and renter of property at Hog Island (now West Swanton, VT) part of Highgate Township in Franklin County Familysearch.org above, image #75

1800-Lawrence Croy’s second will names Rachel, his wife, and Christian, John G., John, and Jacob as his sons. No land is mentioned. He wills John G. and Christian $1.50, John a cow and white horse, and Jacob the balance of his estate. It is recorded August 24, 1800. Familysearch.org as above, image #77

1800- John Croy sold land April 29, 1800 on Hog Island. (Familysearch.org. Sorry, no image #)

1800- Jacob (age 26-44) and Lawrence Croy (age+45) appear on the Highgate, Franklin County, VT Federal Census.

1799 to 1802-residence list names John Croy and Jacob Croy (Familysearch.org images 93, 114…sorry, no image # for 1799 and 1800)

1803- John Croy appears on the residence list. I find no further record for Croys in Highgate…but perusing these records is a challenge. I may have missed something. As it is, I did not list numerous records of John and Jacob’s positions on the town council in positions varying from selectmen to sheriff.

An aside on this family: Christian Croy’s 1842 will in Brunswick, Rensselaer, NY, image 552-555 in Ancestry “Wills and Probate Records of New York” shows no male heirs; nor does John G.’s 1837 will in Petersburg, Rensselaer, NY, images 85-90.

 1810-an illegible ____b(?) Croy (age 26-44, which Ancestry labels as John Cray, appears on the Highgate, Franklin County, VT federal census.

Virginia

1810-Adam (age 26-44); Henry (26-44); and Jacob Croy (+45) appears on the Federal Census. This family is easily traced on the census from this point forward. I doubt it is the same Jacob as in Vermont as he had only one female child under 10 listed on the 1800 VT census. In this census he has (among others) 3 females and 2 males between 16 and 25. I checked Library of Virginia Chancery Records and found no Croys mentioned before 1824. The 1790 and 1800 Federal Censuses do not exist, likely lost in the fires in Washington, DC in The War of 1812.

Can you add anything? Any thoughts? Some mysteries may never be solved—but I’d sure love to unlock this one!

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Second Edition and a Plea for Help

 

Scattering

Purchase or write a review HERE.

It’s up! The second edition of The Scattering of Stones is now available on Amazon. I am very proud of it. (I don’t easily admit such things.) It corrects a few minor errors, has a clean, very readable interior, and sports a fabulous new cover created by Pam Mullins. The cover design visually links the upcoming books in the series, which I have dubbed THE MAGGIE CHRONICLES.

When I first wrote The Scattering of Stones, I had no idea that Maggie Smith, the “present day” researcher in my historical novel, would decide that she was not done! Her fictional research (combined with my real research) unearthed more stories, and she insisted I tell them. Maggie is a very persistent woman.

To those who read Scattering when it first came out, enjoyed it, and then wrote great reviews and sent heartwarming notes, I thank you.

Now I need your help!

If you read my first book and enjoyed it, please write a review for the version showing the cover above. Just click here, scroll down to where it says, “Write a customer review,” click again, and write away. Or you could just cut and paste your old review to the page—or simply give the book a star rating with no comment. I would appreciate it so much.

Here is why!

My previous publisher and I are having trouble pulling the old version of Scattering from Amazon’s on-line sales. Because that edition has more reviews attached to it, and because Amazon does not transfer reviews to second editions, the old version comes up first in a search.  That version is no longer under my copyright, so until it is pulled (except, of course, for used versions), I’d like to bury it under my new, fabulous, edition.

OH—and if you haven’t read Scattering, it has been very well received. If you like historical fiction, in particular American historical fiction, I’d love for you to give it a read. Find a blurb, along with a colored map and short story to compliment the book, on the Moonset Books page above.

THE MAGGIE CHRONICLES, Book Two, The Forging of Frost, set in 17thcentury New Haven Colony, comes out in early January. Book Three, The Legacy of Payne,which takes place in Bennington County, Vermont at the time of the Revolutionary War, is in draft stage, and Maggie’s been whispering two more stories to me, as well. Okay, I wouldn’t call it whispering, but she’ll have to wait.

The Value of DNA Testing Revealed

 

birth and adoptive mother

A birth and adoptive mother, and a connection across time

DNA testing—not much more use than a parlor game—fun factoids (barely) but…That was my conclusion after testing my family with 23andMe, including my brother, children, grandchild, and husband.

Not that I don’t believe in the power of the genetic link.It’s a theme in my novels, a conduit across time. “She knows them, deeper than words or dates or research; they exist in her DNA; they are a soul truth to her.”[1]Science points the way, as well, with conflicting evidence as to the existence of genetic memory and whether experiences change a body’s DNA.

But I just don’t buy it as genealogical proof.I hoped to use the information as a springboard to more historic and record-based research. Maybe I could break down a few brick walls on my side of the family. And, as an aside, the results might give my children some insight into their adopted father’s ancestral background. On a whim, I also decided to push the button to compare my husband’s 23andMe results to other “DNA relatives.”

Before I get to the punch line in all this, let me mention that I have this thing about the intersect between free will and grace(or serendipity, or synchronicity in Jungian terms). In my book (literally in my books…it’s a theme) nothing just happens—without work.

I had already gone through the long-winded process of unlocking my husband’s original birth certificate, including petitioning our congressman to open the records.(I am grateful that he made it happen, and I recommend doing so if you ever run into roadblocks as an adoptee.) Because of this work, we had my husband’s original name, the names of his birth mother and father, and their places of birth. Not all of it was exact. But that’s always the assumption as a genealogist. Even facts are suspect. Anyway…

Matches came in—but highly unlikely ones.Less than 1% matches; matches that, upon closer analysis, weren’t matches. I didn’t expect much. What are the chances, with so many companies out there, that some relative to an adoptee would: 1. Decide to do a test, 2. Decide to do it with 23andMe, 3. Push the “DNA relative” button, and 4. After all that, keep tabs on the whole thing? Well—highly unlikely.

Still, you do the work; so I kept tabs on the results. Then one match came in significantly higher than my version of random, near to 25%.So, what the heck, a brief email seemed in order. “I’m sending this for my husband… Anything strike a chord?” Honestly, I forgot that I’d sent it—until I got a Thanksgiving reply.

My husband’s half-sister found—everything confirmed by birth records and common family stories. (Remember the work?) So, regarding DNA testing, is it a parlor game? Sure. But, sometimes, those kits are a genetic link, a healing of regrets, a righting of mistaken beliefs, and the discovery of a birth mother, long gone, but passing on her love through memories left behind.

Grace, and the will to pursue the improbable; there is, indeed, a lesson in everything.

[1]From Book Two of The Maggie Chronicles, The Forging of Frost, coming out next month…more on all that in a couple weeks.

A Deep Dig into the Town of Morges, Ohio

Morges Marker

You’ve checked the tax records for your ancestor OR you found a deed confirming ownership—you’re done right?They lived there; it’s clear. Okay, asking the question and answering so unequivocally was a dead give away. Nope. You aren’t done. You need to check both taxes and deeds.

DON’T ASSUME YOUR ANCESTOR LIVED ON THE LAND DEEDED TO HIM OR OWNED THE LAND WHERE HE PAID TAXES.

Samuel Oswalt, the brother of my 3x’s great-grandmother, Susannah Oswalt Croy, established the little town of Morges, Ohio, in 1831. You’ll also notice by the sign above that Jacob Waggoner, Jr. is, likewise, a town founder.

I wanted to find the original deeded document for the formation of the town of Morges. I also hoped to find Andrew Croy’s original deed for his Morges property, and maybe those of other ancestors living on lots there. Previously, I had documented all those living in Morges using the only surviving early tax records, 1833-1838.(Some wise soul rescued these few records from the waste pile during a courthouse purge.) Andrew Croy, Susannah Oswalt’s husband, appeared on the tax records for Morges, lot #18, from 1833 through 1838. Jacob Croy, his son, was listed on lot #17, 1833-1835. Numerous Croys and Oswalts littered the list.

By using the on-line digitalized courthouse records available through familysearch.com, I had already found one deed in which Samuel Oswalt corrected an error of location for the town of Morges.I, likewise, located a deed transferring lot #18 from Andrew and Susan/Susannah to a John Zengler in 1848. But they weren’t the originals. I found no deed for Jacob Croy.

So who owned all of the thirty-seven Morges lots? The deeds, in Stark County (the town’s home county until 1832) and Carroll County (its home from 1832 forward), were not searchable. They required that I locate names in indexes—both alphabetized and not—then go to the indicated page. Let the treasure hunt begin.

Morges,_Ohio_map_1874

Plat Map of Morges, Ohio 1874

As I searched for the deeds using the individuals named on the tax records, Inoticed something perplexing. The property tax records and ownership records did not coincide. Why not, I asked? Land ownership and property tax should match up, shouldn’t they? The answer? Well, not necessarily.

Early taxation did not always distinguish between personal (movable) and real (immovable) property.An example is my 5x great-grandfather, Jacob Oswalt’s 1779, Bedford County tax record which taxed real property like land, grist mills, saw mills, and distilleries, along with movable goods like servants, negroes, merchandise, horses, horned cows, and sheep.[i]

Even when property was taxed separately from movable goods, determining the owner of property wasn’t always easy.A tax assessor traveling the countryside did not have immediate access to deeds nor were they always recorded with the county.[ii]The assessor often relied on those living on the land for their information.

In Morges, though Samuel Oswalt often owned much of the property, the person living on it (most often a relative) often paid the tax.For those who have an interest in the little town of Morges, a compilation of my research by lot, with occupants and owners can be found here. Morges, OH Tax and deed Records. It’s a work in progress; I’ll update it regularly.Briefly, here are my bulleted discoveries. Eight lots are still a mystery.

  • By the 1840’s (a timespan of about 10 years) Samuel Oswalt and John Waggoner, Jr. owned few of the lots.The Fetters (Casper, Joseph, and Jacob) owned 10 lots, Frederick Harple owned 5, John Zengler owned 4, Stephen Rennniar owned 4, and Abraham Fredrick owned 2. (25 of the lots)
  • Samuel Oswalt originally owned (and/or sold) at least 22 of the 37 lots.
  • John Waggoner bought two lots from Samuel Oswalt and likely owned 3 more.
  • I found no evidence that the following individuals listed on the tax records owned lots.[iii]Mathias or Peter Waggoner, Thomas Simonton, Henry Casselman, Daniel Wymer, John Oswalt, Michael Croy, or Jacob Croy, all related in some way to Samuel.

Two WOWS!I found the transfer of land from Jacob Oswalt to Samuel and John Oswalt on November 17, 1827,[iv]along with the transfer of land from John Waggoner, Sr. to John, Jr. on February 25, 1826.[v]Thus the seeds for the town of Morges were sown.

I also discovered the transfer of land from John Waggoner, Jr. to the Bishop of Cincinnati.[vi]This deeded donation was the beginnings of St. Mary’s Catholic Church located in Morges and pictured below.morges

I never found the original Stark County record filed by Samuel Oswalt for the town of Morges, though I found many deeds in which he sold lots to others.The exact page of the entry—“which is recorded in deed book J, page 417, in the recorder’s office for the county of Stark”—was provided in a correction to the town location on August 21, 1832.[vii]But, look as I might on the exact page (and in books I in case I read it incorrectly, I couldn’t find it. Any help out there?Looks like I might need to go to Canton.

I also never located my 3x great-grandfather’s original lot 18 deed. A later deed in which he sells the property for $12 to a John Zengler, recorded on May 9, 1848, indicates it is housed at the Stark County Courthouse[viii], but I couldn’t find it in the on-line records for Stark County found at Familysearch.com. Another reason to go to Canton, I suppose.

I keep finding more and more reasons for that next trip to Ohio. Oh, darn!

[i]As time passed, Bedford County tried to track land ownership by indicating who had a warrant to the land or a deed and who was simply living on the land, a difficult business in the wilds of Pennsylvania in the 1700’s.
[ii]I found examples of deed transfers, sometimes as many as 4 separate transfers with dates from the 1830’s into the 1840’s listed page after page, to complete a transfer of ownership.
[iii]The original Morges deeded record may shed more light.
[iv]Deed Records of Five Ohio Counties; 1809-1902: Columbiana and Stark Counties, Deed Records, V. 51, 1809-1834, pg. 230-234; accessed on-line through familysearch.com
[v]Deed Records of Five Ohio Counties; 1809-1902: Columbiana and Stark Counties, Deed Records, V. 51, 1809-1834, pg. 368-369; accessed on-line through familysearch.com
[vi]Deed Records of Five Ohio Counties; 1809-1902: Columbiana and Stark Counties, Deed Records, V. 51, 1809-1834, pg. 537; accessed on-line through familysearch.com
[vii]Ohio Justice of the Peace, Stark County, Volume 51, page 503; Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 2004; accessed on-line through familysearch.com.
[viii]Carroll County, Ohio, Courthouse Record of Deeds; Vol. 10, 1845-48, page 489; Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1964; accessed on-line through familysearch.com.

Off Line for a While

sling

Due to impingement and tendon repair, I’m taking a typing break for 5-6 weeks. Hunt and peck is not my thing. But before I go, got to love how nerdy excited I am to get this old book. It’s research for the next book in my head and I couldn’t find it on line.

climate book

When I return I’ll be getting ready for the Surrey International Writing Conference in Canada where I’m scheduled for a Blue Pencil Cafe session (a critique of my writing) with Diana Gabaldon! She can tell me anything…it’s 15 minutes one-on-one with Diana Gabaldon.

This short missive took all my concentration. How do hunt-and-peckers do it?

 

Researching New Haven—and a few general hints, as well

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Inside Map with scrolling

Early sketch of New Haven. Repository Yale University

My upcoming novel, The Forging of Frost, is set in 17thcentury New Haven Colony so I decided to look back at the catalyst for that novel, the family research I did on my New Haven ancestors.I am, after all, the real life version of the fictional Maggie found in my books.

I was surprised to find only one postWhy?

Well, there just aren’t many resources available, but they are extraordinarily comprehensive.Here’s what I discovered, and along the way I’ve added some hints, whether you’re doing New Haven research or not.

Hint #1: Always determine where the person(s) you are researching lived and go to FamilySearch.org.

Input the place name to search their research wiki for an overview of all available resources and the catalog to discover their library’s digital resources. I didn’t always do this and would go on random search adventures. But why?

And never think your done. While testing this article, I reviewed the resources in their catalogand found this in the Abstracts of the early probate records of New Haven compiled by Winifred S. Alcorn. Screen Shot 2018-07-15 at 1.40.00 PM

Typical of New England colonies in general, most of the New Haven information comes from copious records kept by documentation-conscious church leadership. Later, the minutes of town and colony, as well as church vital records, were unified into book form by early historians (before those three to four-hundred year old records turned to dust or were ruined by constant exposure). So what’s available?

Colonial Records: in this case the online and searchable archive.org versions.

I love these records—my book, after all, fictionalizes a handful of trials found inside. The volumes unveil New Haven’s development, dilemmas, and ultimate demise in a moment by moment manner. Included in the meeting notes are a host of family names. Some parts of the transcribed volumes are redacted due to what the editor sensitivity to what he deemed offensive content. The unredacted originals are housed in the Connecticut State Library archives.

Hint: archive.org books (digitalized by numerous contributors) are searchable.

Just make sure you use the format that looks like a book and click the magnifier to the right. (When hovered over, it says “search inside.”) Use all the possible spellings. In my case, “Payne” and “Paine” provided results, as did “Payen” in other works.

Town Records:I’ve found these extremely useful, but you usually have to work for them. FamilySearch.org has a range of them on line, but they aren’t usually searchable. Except by you—one page at a time. Luckily, a transcript of New Haven’s town records is available through archives.org.

Hint: A good sense of the time frame in which your ancestor inhabited the town helps narrow your search.

Town records include tidbits not available in the colonial records, and if your ancestors moved within the colony, research every town.

Local Town Genealogies:I’m speaking of the genealogies compiled from town vitals and other records not easily accessed, not books produced by descendants or gathered from residents for town histories that include biographies based on recollection. They are less reliable. Regardless:

New Haven has an excellent and comprehensive eight-volume set of early family records.

  • Families of Ancient New Haven, Volumes 1-8,compiled by Donald Lines Jacobus, C.D. Smith, Rome, New York, 1923. While some of the volumes are available through archives.org, the most comprehensive and searchable version is through Ancestry.com $$

Hint: Always, always, check the front pages of compiled records for ABBREVIATIONS.

Screen Shot 2018-07-14 at 9.29.09 AM

Sample of abbreviations found at beginning of Ancient Families of New Haven

Don’t just guess at them. Some useful information might be over looked if you don’t know their meanings. Note the example. All of the records in Volume 6 of Families of Ancient New Haven for Samuel Payne, my 4x great grandfather, have an F by them, indicating the author drew the information from family records. (Refer to the hint below!)

Local Histories:Two examples I read on New Haven included the following searchable books found at archives.org.

Hint: Be very careful with town, county, and descendant genealogy/history books, for while they may contain information that sends you down fruitful paths, you must verify through other sources.

Historical Societies and Museums:Some are excellent repositories; some aren’t repositories at all. Some provide their resources on-line; some require a visit.

Hint: If you plan a visit, check out when they’re open.

I did, but no rearranging of my travel schedule got me to New Haven on the right day. Still, a place like the one below is wonderful about returning e-mails and helping with research, so ASK. New Haven’s best bet?

So, whether you’re searching for ancient ancestors in New Haven, New England or further afield—or just want to know more about the history of a place—check FamilySearch.org resources, use the magic of archive.org digitalized books, go deep, and keep looking.

Do you have other hints or ideas for research? Let me know in comments!

A Place on Wills Creek: A Short Story Prequel to The Scattering of Stones

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The second book in what I now dub The Maggie Chronicles will soon be ready for publication. So, to express my delight, here’s a gift to all who’ve read the first book, The Scattering of Stones, (or who might want to).

It’s a free (longish) short story about how Jacob Carter arrived up on Wills Creek.

The cover designed by Pam Mullins gives you a sneak peak at the cover style for the series. I’m so excited about it. The cover to the new book, The Forging of Frost, will have a similar look, and The Scattering of Stone’s cover gets a facelift to match! THANK YOU, PAM!

Select the link below to view the prequel!
http://online.fliphtml5.com/kmkq/nvaf/index.html